Rationale: The susceptibility of neonates to pulmonary and systemic infection has been associated with the immaturity of both lung structure and the immune system. Surfactant protein (SP) D is a member of the collectin family of innate immune molecules that plays an important role in innate host defense of the lung.
Objectives: We tested whether treatment with recombinant human SP-D influenced the response of the lung and systemic circulation to intratracheally administered Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharides.
Methods: After intratracheal lipopolysaccharide instillation, preterm newborn lambs were treated with surfactant and ventilated for 5 h.
Measurement: Survival rate, physiologic lung function, lung and systemic inflammation, and endotoxin level in plasma were evaluated.
Main Results: In control lambs, intratracheal lipopolysaccharides caused septic shock and death associated with increased endotoxin in plasma. In contrast, all lambs treated with recombinant human SP-D were physiologically stable and survived. Leakage of lipopolysaccharides from the lungs to the systemic circulation was prevented by intratracheal recombinant human SP-D. Recombinant human SP-D prevented systemic inflammation and decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-8, and IL-6 in the spleen and liver. Likewise, recombinant human SP-D decreased IL-1β and IL-6 in the lung and IL-8 in the plasma. Recombinant human SP-D did not alter pulmonary mechanics following endotoxin exposure. Recombinant human SP-D was readily detected in the lung 5 h after intratracheal instillation.
Conclusions: Intratracheal recombinant human SP-D prevented shock caused by endotoxin released from the lung during ventilation in the premature newborn.
Ikegami, M, et al.
American Journal of Respiratory Critical Care Medicine 2006